What Happened after the Good Friday Agreement

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Referendums were held in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on 22 May 1998. In Northern Ireland, people were asked, “Do you support the agreement reached in the multi-party talks on Northern Ireland and set out in Command Document 3883?” Turnout in the referendum was 81.1%, of which 71.1% supported the agreement. In the Republic of Ireland, people were asked, “Do you agree with the proposed amendment to the Constitution contained in the bill mentioned below, nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution Act 1998?” Turnout in the referendum was 55.6%, of which 94.4% supported the proposed constitutional amendment.1 To promote minority languages, the government established the Centre`s Community Relations Unit to develop a directive on the use of languages for Irish, Ulster and the languages of other communities. In December 1999, the North/South Languages Implementation Body entered into force to uphold the government`s commitment to support linguistic diversity under the agreement.1 “The Good Friday Agreement: Culture”,” BBC News, accessed February 7, 2013, www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/schools/agreement/culture/irish2.sh. 1. The State may agree to be bound by the United Kingdom-Ireland Agreement concluded in Belfast in 1998, hereinafter referred to as `the Agreement`. While substantial police reform was underway after the Patten Commission and its recommendations, Sinn Fein boycotted police reform under the pretext of bridging a significant gap between the original 1999 reform plan and the actions of the British government.1 Two competing forces shaped US policy towards Northern Ireland in the early years of the unrest. On the one hand, the United States and the United Kingdom shared a strong political bond, with historical roots reinforced by the Cold War. These connections tended for Washington to move to London in a conflict that the UK saw as an internal conflict.

In the opposite direction, a large and active Irish Catholic diaspora has moved, sympathetic to the plight of Catholics in Northern Ireland. Irish Americans were largely in favor of Irish unification, although they were divided between those who supported Sinn Fein/IRA (IRA sympathizers in the US provided significant financial and material support to the group)56 and those who opposed violence and supported the SDLP. The latter group had strong supporters in the U.S. Congress (including leaders such as House Speaker Tip O`Neill and Senator Ted Kennedy), but the executive branch largely prioritized the United States and Britain. Links. The old text contains only four articles; It is this short text that is the legal agreement, but it contains in its annexes the latter agreement. [7] Technically, this envisaged agreement can be distinguished as a multi-party agreement as opposed to the Belfast Agreement itself. [7] The Good Friday Agreement concluded in 1998 provided a framework for a political solution in Northern Ireland, focused on the sharing of power between unionists and nationalists.

It was signed by the British and Irish governments, as well as four of Northern Ireland`s main political parties: Sinn Fein, the Ulster Unionist Party, the Social Democratic and Labour Party and the Alliance Party. Of the main parties, only the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) abstained. Although the agreement confirmed that Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom, it states that Ireland could be united if it were supported by a majority vote in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. During negotiations on the UK`s planned withdrawal from the European Union in 2019, the EU presented a position paper on its concerns about the UK`s support for the Good Friday Agreement during Brexit. The position paper addresses issues such as the avoidance of a hard border, North-South cooperation between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, the birthright of all northern Irish residents (as defined in the agreement) and the common travel area. [31] [32] Anyone born in Northern Ireland and therefore entitled to an Irish passport under the Good Friday Agreement can retain EU citizenship after Brexit. [33] In accordance with the European Union`s Brexit negotiating directives, the UK was asked to convince other EU members that these issues had been addressed in order to move to the second phase of Brexit negotiations. Perhaps the best way to characterize the agency`s role is to say that circumstances gave each of the main players a reasonably favorable hand that facilitated a deal, but everyone played the hand quite skillfully. The agreement reaffirms the commitment to “mutual respect, civil rights and religious freedoms of all members of the community.” The multi-party agreement recognised “the importance of respect, understanding and tolerance with regard to linguistic diversity”, in particular with regard to the Irish language, Ulster Scots and the languages of other ethnic minorities in Northern Ireland, “all of which are part of the cultural richness of the island of Ireland”. The agreement consists of two interconnected documents, both agreed in Belfast on Good Friday, April 10, 1998: 25 Hennessey focuses on the “ulsterization” of security in the north, which led to a reduction in the British military presence. This had the effect of both eliminating a major nationalist grievance and forcing the IRA to focus its violence on the “Irish” victims so Protestant, rather than on what they saw as the colonial oppressor.

Hennessey, The Peace Process in Northern Ireland, page 39 The agreement was officially reached between the British and Irish governments and eight political parties in Northern Ireland, including Sinn Féin, the Ulster Unionist Party, the SDLP and the Alliance Party. .